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Centria Guide for Thesis and Academic Writing

Guidance for the final thesis writing at Centria

7 COMPILING THE LIST OF REFERENCES

After the actual text, the student compiles the list of references, which is titled REFERENCES in capital letters. All sources mentioned in the thesis are included in the list of references. No sub-headings are used in the list and the sources are listed in alphabetical order according to the writer’s last name. The reader must be able to find the source in the list of references according to the very information given in the in-text reference. Thus, the in-text reference must be written in exactly the same way as the first information listed in the references. The list of references contains accurate information on the sources used and only the sources that have been used and referred to in the text can be included.

The list of references provides the bibliographical data necessary for locating the publication.

This information includes, for example:

                             the author’s last name, the initial letter of the author’s first name

                             the year of publication

                             the title of the publication (in italics)

                             the edition used, when there are several editions available

                             the place of publication and the name of the publisher.

 

                             For example:

                             Yule, G. 1996. The study of language. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

                Torkki, J. 2006. PuhevaltaKuinka kuulijat vakuutetaan. Helsinki: Kustannusosakeyhtiö Otava.

 

When using electronic sources, one must particularly pay attention to the reliability of the source, the permanence of the source, the availability of the document and the copyright issues. The electronic sources are marked in the list of references following the same practice as the published sources. However, if there is no page numbering or publisher information available, then these are not included. If the author is known, the last name of the author and the year of publication are written first, both in the in-text reference and in the list of references. If a document where the author is not known is used as a source, the in-text reference includes either a) the publishing/ responsible organization or b) the title of the web page (see chapter 6 References). The list of refrences and the in-text references must always correspond using the same information. More advice and examples on using electronic sources can also be found on the pages of the Harvard Referencing Guide.

The list of references should also include the following information:
                             - Available at: (the exact Internet address where the source is available)
                             - Accessed (the date when the document has been accessed and it has been referred to, write       out the month, no brackets)

For example:
Krigsman, M. 2009. Social CRM. Shifting power and rapid burn. Available at: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/projectfailures/social-crm-shfting-power-and-rapi-burn/5367. Accessed 12 October 2014.

Sieppinen, A. 2011. Resurssit osana asiakkaan arvonluontia palveluliiketoiminnassa. Pankkien lainapalvelut kuluttajille. Maisterin tutkinnon tutkielma. Helsinki: Aalto-yliopisto. Available at: http://epub.lib.aalto.fi/fi/ethesis/pdf/12971/hse_ethesis_12971.pdf. Accessed 18 March 2015.

Eteisvärinä. Käypä hoito -suositus. Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Kardiologisen Seuran asettama työryhmä. Helsinki: Suomalainen Lääkäriseura Duodecim, 2017.  Available at: www.kaypahoito.fi. Accessed 3 March 2018.

The following sub-chapters provide examples of listing different types of sources in the list of references. The references can also be checked in Centria-Finna. The picture below is an example of the way references are shown in Centria-Finna.

Picture of the Citation at Centria-Finna-database.

The reader’s impression of the quality of source materials used in the thesis is formed based on the references. A high-quality source material makes a good impression of the author’s expertise.

In-text references and the list of references can also be drawn up using the RefWorks reference management software (linkki), which automatically creates correct references when choosing the Harvard citation style. You can find instructions on how to use RefWorks in Refworks guide.

A printed book is marked in the list of references as follows:


Author’s last name, the first letter of the author’s first name. Year of publishing. Name of the book. Edition (if more than one). Place of publishing: Publisher.

Examples:

Giddens, A. 1991. Modernity and Self-identity. Self and Society in the Late modern Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hirsjärvi, S., Remes, P. & Sajavaara, P. 2009. Tutki ja kirjoita. 15, new edition. Helsinki: Tammi.

Kniivilä, S., Lindblom-Ylänne, S. & Mäntynen, A. 2007. Tiede ja teksti. Tehoa ja taitoa tutkielman kirjoittamiseen. Helsinki: WSOY.

Hakkarainen, K., Lonka, K. & Lipponen, L. 2004. Tutkiva oppiminen. Järki, tunteet ja kulttuuri oppimisen sytyttäjinä. Porvoo: WSOY.

 

In case the book’s editor is known, but the information on the authors of the different chapters is not indicated, the reference can be made using the title of the book. The name(s) of the editor(s) is not mandatory information so it can also be left out if desired.

Examples:

Soveltavan liikunnan apuvälineet. 2005. Toim. O. Kuutamo & H. Hölsömäki (eds.). Helsinki: Edita.

Soveltavan liikunnan apuvälineet. 2005. Helsinki: Edita.

An electronic book, an eBook, is included in the references in the same way as a published book, however adding the words Available at: followed by the exact Internet address and Accessed followed by the date when it was read. The date lets the reader know when the work was available on the given address, since it could disappear later. In case the work has a so-called permanent link that should be given as the address of the work.

Aarnikoivu, H. 2016. Aidosti hyödyllinen kehityskeskustelu. 3. new edition. Helsinki. Kauppakamari. Available at: https://kauppakamaritieto-fi.ezproxy.centria.fi/ammattikirjasto/teos/aidosti-hyodyllinen-kehityskeskustelu#kohta:Aidosti((20)hy((f6)dyllinen((20)kehityskeskustelu . Accessed 15 May 2020. 

 

 

When using an article published in an edited work the following information is included in the list of references:

Author’s last name, the first letter of the author’s first name. Year of publishing. Name of the article. In + The first letter of the editor's first name. The editor's/ editors’ last name(s) (ed./ eds.) The whole name of the edited work (in italics). Place of publishing: Publisher, page numbers of the article in the work.

Döös, M. 2007. Organizational learning. Competence-bearing relations and breakdowns of workplace relatonics. In L. Farell & T. Fenwick (eds.) World Year Book of Education 2007. Educating the global workforce. Knowledge, knowledge work and knowledge workers. London: Routledge, 141-153.

 

Ikonen, K. 1994. Maahanmuuttajien opetus. In T. Hilasvuosi (ed.) Monikulttuurinen koulu. Opetus & kasvatus -sarja. Helsinki: Painatuskeskus, 75–100.

Kuusinen, J. & Korkiakangas, M. 1991. Oppiminen. In J. Kuusinen (ed.) Kasvatuspsykologia. Porvoo: WSOY, 21–64.

Kiviniemi, K., Leppisaari, I. & Teräs, H. 2013. Autenttiset verkko-oppimisratkaisut asiantuntijuuden kehittäjinä. In J. T. Hakala & K. Kiviniemi (eds.) Vuorovaikutuksen jännitteitä ja oppimisen säröjä. Aikuispedagogiikan haasteiden äärellä. Jyväskylän yliopisto, Kokkolan yliopistokeskus Chydenius, 99–114.

Teräs, H., Leppisaari, I., Teräs, M. & Herrington, J. 2014. Learning cultures and multiculturalism: Authentic e-learning designs. In T. Issa, P. Isaias & P. Kommers (eds.) Multicultural Awareness and Technology in Higher EducationGlobal Perspectives. Hershey, PA: IGI-Global, 197–217.

If an article has been published in in a journal, magazine or newspaper, it is marked in the list of references as follows:

Author’s last name, the first letter of the author’s first name. Year of publishing. Name of the article. Name of the journal/magazine/newspaper, volume, issue, page numbers of the article in the journal/magazine/newspaper.

The name of the journal, magazine or newspaper is written in italics according to the Harvard referencing style.

For example:

Leppisaari, I., Kleimola, R., Herrington, J., Maunula, M. & Hohenthal, T. 2014. Developing More Authentic e-Courses by Integrating Working Life Mentoring and Social Media. Journal of Interactive Learning Research 25(2), 211–236.

Julkunen, R. 1991. Hoiva ja professionalismi. Sosiologia 28, 78–83.

Salo, P. 2007. Potilastiedon sähköistä käsittelyä koskeva lainsäädäntö. In H. Hopia ja L. Koponen (toim.). Hoitotyön kirjaaminen. Hoitotyön vuosikirja 2007. Jyväskylä: Gummerus, 13–24.

Takase, M., Maude, P. & Manias, E. 2004. Explaining nurses’ behaviour from their perception of the environment and work values. International Journal of Nursing Studies 44, 171-174.

 

References to Articles published electronically also include address information. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) information is the permanent link to an article.

Wang X., Zhang J., Yu Z., Mao S., Periaswamy S. C. G. & Patton J. 2019. On Remote Temperature Sensing Using Commercial UHF RFID Tags. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 6(6). 10715-10727. Available at doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2019.2941023. Accessed 14 May 2020.

Juntunen, A. 2020. Nuoret ja elävä toimijuuden tunto elämänkulun käännekohdissa. Janus. (28)1. 20-41. Available at: https://doi.org/10.30668/janus.70093 . Accessed 8 May 2020. 

 

In newspaper articles the author is not necessarily mentioned. In this case the reference is made using the title of the article.

Millenium miljoonan päättäjät. 2006. Taloussanomat 15.6.2006.

Sibelius. 1995. Helsingin Sanomat, Kuukausiliite 9.12.1995, 25, 34-45.

 

 

Reports, committee reports and brochures are marked in the list of references as follows:

Author’s last name, the first letter of the author’s first name. Year of publishing. The whole name of the work. Place of publishing, publisher, publication series and number. (Note that the year is not repeated unless it is included in the numbering of the series.)

Examples:

Mullins, G. & Kiley, M. 2002. It’s a PhD, not a Nobel Prize. How experienced examiners assess research theses. Tampere: University of Tampere. Studies in Higher Education 27.

Leppisaari, I., Ihanainen, P., Nevgi, A., Taskila, V-M., Tuominen, T. & Saari, S. 2008. Hyvässä kasvussa - Yhdessä kehittäen kohti ammattikorkeakoulujen laadukasta verkko-opetusta. Helsinki. Korkeakoulujen arviointineuvosto. Korkeakoulujen arviointineuvoston julkaisuja 4: 2008. Available at: https://karvi.fi/app/uploads/2015/01/KKA_408.pdf. Accessed 17 March 2015.

Hakulinen-Viitanen, T., Hietanen-Peltola, M., Bloigu, A. & Pelkonen, M. 2014. Äitiys- ja lastenneuvolatoiminta sekä kouluterveydenhuolto: valtakunnallinen seuranta 2012. Helsinki: Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos. Report 12/2014.

If the author is not mentioned, the reference can be made using either the publishing organization or the name of the publication. Most importantly, check that the in-text reference and the references list match.

Below are examples of both ways:

Opetushallitus. 2017. Varhaiskasvatussuunnitelman perusteiden uudistus. Esite. 
Available at: https://www.oph.fi/sites/default/files/documents/180941_varhaiskasvatussuunnitelman_perusteiden_uudistus.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2020.

or

Varhaiskasvatussuunnitelman perusteiden uudistus. 2017. Esite. Opetushallitus. 
Available at: https://www.oph.fi/sites/default/files/documents/180941_varhaiskasvatussuunnitelman_perusteiden_uudistus.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2020.

Other examples:

Psykologipalvelut. Keski-Pohjanmaan sosiaali- ja terveyspalvelukuntayhtymä Soite. Available at: https://www.soite.fi/psykologipalvelut . Accessed 4 May 2020.

Tutkimuseettinen neuvottelukunta. 2012. Hyvä tieteellinen käytäntö ja sen loukkausten käsitteleminen. Helsinki: Tutkimuseettinen neuvottelukunta. 

 

When using final theses, Master’s theses, Licentiate theses, Doctor’s dissertation or other research work as a source, they are marked in the list of references as follows:

Author’s last name, the first letter of the author’s first name. Year of publishing. Name of the thesis. Place of publishing: Information on the publisher or the educational institute. Possible name of the publication series and its number. The type of research report (Master’s thesis, Doctor’s dissertation etc.).

Examples:

Aro-Salonen, M. 2014. Normaalia nuoren elämää. Lapsen etu pitkäaikaisen sijaishuollon tavoitteina ja ratkaisuina. Tampere: Tampereen yliopisto, Yhteiskunta- ja kulttuuritieteiden yksikkö. Sosiaalityön ammatillinen lisensiaatin tutkimus.

Korpelainen, A. 2014. Aikaperusteisen toimintolaskennan käyttöönotto pk-yrityksen huollonkustannuslaskennassa. Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu. Laskentatoimi. Master’s Thesis

Ahmadian, A. M. 2015. Modeling contention behavior of machine-type devices over multiple wireless channels. Tampere: Tampere University of Technology. Master’s Degree Programme in Information Technology. Master of Science Thesis.

Huotari, E-I. 2014. Auttaminen on molemminpuolinen ilo! Avustaviin perheenjäseniin perustuva auttaminen suomalaisissa perheyrityksissä avustajan näkökulmasta katsottuna. Jyväskylä: University Printing House. Jyväskylän yliopiston kauppakorkeakoulu. Doctor’s dissertation

Sammalkangas, M. 2020. Ostokäyttäytyminen lastenvaatteita hankittaessa: Case Viivi ja Vilpertti. Kokkola: Centria-ammattikorkeakoulu. Bachelor’s Thesis. Available at: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:amk-202005118318 . Accessed 14 May 2020.

Virkkula, E. 2014. ”Soittaminen ammattilaisen kanssa on paras tapa oppia”. Työpajaperustainen työssäoppiminen muusikoiden ammatillisessa koulutuksessa. Oulu: Oulun yliopisto. Kasvatustieteiden tiedekunta. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. E Scientiae Rerun Socialum 143. Väitöskirja. Available at: http://jultika.oulu.fi/files/isbn9789526205465.pdf. Accessed 16 January 2020.

Ahmadian, A. M. 2015. Modeling contetation behavior of machine-type devices over multiple wireless channels. Tampere: Tampere University of Technology. Master of Sciences Thesis.

Kemppainen, J. 2006. Turnip, rape and mustard in the production of biodiesel. Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences. Bachelor’s thesis.

Pajunen, L. 2001. Activating lead anodes with metal oxides. Helsinki University of Technology. Department of Materials Science and Rock Engineering. Otaniemi. Master’s thesis.

 

Regulations refer mainly to laws, decrees or government bills. In the list of references, they are marked with detailed information, similar to other sources, but without the author’s name:

Name of the law/ decree. Date of passing the law / number. The work or address where the law/ decree is available.

Examples:

Ammattikorkeakoululaki. 14.11.2014/932. Available at: http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2014/20140932. Accessed 1 April 2015.

Tietosuojalaki. 5.12.2018/1050. Available at: https://finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2018/20181050. Accessed 7 January 2019.

Nuorisolaki. 21.12.2016/1285. Available at: https://finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2016/20161285. Accessed 20 January 2019.

Personal Data Act. 22 Apr 1999/523. Available at: http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990523. Accessed 3 June 2015.

DECISION (EU) 2020/701 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on providing macro‐financial assistance to enlargement and neighbourhood partners in the context of the COVID‐19 pandemic. 25.5.2020. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:32020D0701&qid=1592292064283&from=EN . Accessed 15 June 2020.

7.7 Standards

As for standards, established acronyms are used. For example, the abbreviation for the Finnish Standard Association is SFS. When listing standards in the list of references, first there should be the number of the standard, followed by the name of the standard as well as the year of establishing the standard.

For example:

IEEE 1902.1 Standard for Long Wavelength Wireless Network Protocol. 2009. Available at: doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2009.4810102. Accessed 15 June 2020.
SFS 5989. Lähde – ja tekstiviitteiden laatiminen. 2012. Helsinki: Suomen standardisoimisliitto SFS.

 

Patents are marked in the list of references as follows:

Author’s last name, the first letter of the author’s first name. Patenting year. Organization that owns the patent. Name of the patent. Country where patented and the patent number (by which the patent can be found in the patent register).

For example:

Melcer, S. 2006. SOFUN. Physical Exercise machine. USA US2006252612.

Audiovisual materials, such as TV programs, films, video clips, podcasts, can also be used as sources in a thesis. When using such a source, one should check the reference information in the metadata of the source. This can be, for example, the title page or similar, home page, record cover, end credits or metadata embedded in the source. Sometimes the metadata can also be, for example, the back of the title page, title, cover, label, description of illustrated work, as well as TV and radio program listings.

Examples:


Draama, teatteri ja oppiminen. 2001. Opetustelevision Katarsis-sarjan ohjelma 1/6. Käsikirjoitus: M. Kilpeläinen. Toimittaja ja ohjaaja: M. Kilpeläinen. Ylen avoin opisto. TV 1. Esitetty 30.9.2001.

Samuelin päivä: Video romaanikulttuurista. 1996. Käsikirjoitus ja ohjaus: Tuija Mikonranta, Ari Mikonranta. Helsinki: Opetushallitus.

Tikkanen, H. 2020. Unohdettu astronautti - Neil Armstrong ja Buzz Aldrin kävivät kuussa, mutta kuka antoi kyydin. Tiedetrippi. Podcast. Saatavissa: https://areena.yle.fi/1-50446799 . Viitattu 10.5.2020.

Drama, theatre and learning. 2001. Educational television Katarsis series programme 1/6. Scriptwriter M. Kilpeläinen. Editor and producer M. Kilpeläinen. YLE Open University. TV1. Broadcasted 30 Sept 2001.

The Corporation. Talk, learn, act. 2004. A film by Achbar, M., Abbott, J. and Bakan J. Production: Big Picture Media Corporation. New York: Zeitgeist Films Ltd.

Lehmann-Brauns, A. 2010. Chambers of Illumination. Photograph. Available at: http://www.goethe.de/kue/bku/kpa/en3405951.htm. Accessed 28 December 2010.

How It’s made: Aluminium Cans (Sam’s Club Choice). 2015. Video on YouTube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7Y0zAzoggY. Accessed 29 March 2015.

Personal communication, such as interviews with experts, e-mail correspondence and phone calls, are marked in detail in the list of references, following the same principles as other sources.

For e-mail messages, the subject line and the receiver of the message are written out.

Examples:

Emmes, M. 2020. Opening hours of the student affairs office. Private e-mail message. 2 Jan 2020. Receiver Jeremi Lutakko. 

Erkkilä, P. 2014. Interview with Communications Manager 1 April 2014. Digital Equipment Corporation Oy. Helsinki.

Haikola, A. 2016. Personal communication, phone call. 24 Jan 2016.

Paajanen, P. 2015. Personal communication with principal lecturer in Business Management at Centria UAS, discussion. 20 Jan 2015.

Sheet music is included as references in the same way as other sources.

Examples:

Dui didl ladl dil laa. Sheet music. Pdf file. Available at: http://www.kamulaari.fi/site/_files/Dui%20didl%20ladl%20dil%20laa.pdf . Accessed 28 April 2020

Haapasalo, K. Minun leipäni pieniin on pantu. Available at: http://www.kamulaari.fi/site/_files/Minun_leipani_pieniin_on_pantu.pdf . Accessed 30 April 2020.

Stolzenberg, G. 1889. Serenade, clarinet, string orchestra, op. 6. LepzigBreitkopf & Härtel. Available at: https://urresearch.rochester.edu/institutionalPublicationPublicView.action?institutionalItemId=4890 . Accessed 22 April 2020.

 

Instructions for referring to Current Care Guidelines are found here

Materials on the intranet designed for the internal communication within a company can also be used as sources. These will be included in the same way as other source materials. The source is explained using for example “The intranet of company X” or a similar description. Even if the Internet address is not available for anybody reading the thesis, the reference information can be used to trace the information of a source if needed.

Example: 

Ristimäki, K. 2020. Valmiusryhmän linjaukset. Centraali, Centria staff intranet. Available at:  https://centriafi.sharepoint.com/henkilokuntaintra/Lists/Tiedotteet/DispForm.aspx?ID=1199&Source=https%3A%2F%2Fcentriafi%2Esharepoint%2Ecom%2Fhenkilokuntaintra%2FSitePages%2FKotisivu%2Easpx&ContentTypeId=0x010400699545623532B741BF354119ECCBA549 Accessed 8 May 2020.

Facebook update

The words status update or publication can also be used instead of update.

Example:

In-text reference: (Yle Selkouutiset 2020)

In the list of references:

Yle Selkouutiset. Facebook update 13 May 2020. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/yleselkouutiset/?hc_ref=NEWSFEED&fref=nf . Accessed 14 May 2020.

If there are several updates on the same date, also the first sentence of the update can be included in the list of references so the source can be found more easily.

Yle Selkouutiset. Onko sinusta hyvä asia, että koulut taas alkavat? Facebook update 13.5.2020. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/yleselkouutiset/?hc_ref=NEWSFEED&fref=nf . Accessed 14 May 2020.

 

Twitter

Twitter messages can also serve as source materials. The @ sign does not affect the alphabetical order in the list of references.

Example:

In-text reference: (@SuomenAkatemia 2020)

In the list of references:

@SuomenAkatemia 2020. Tweet 16 May 2020. Twitter microblogging service. Available at: https://twitter.com/SuomenAkatemia/status/1260934274468872193 . Accessed 15 May 2020. 

 

 

a) Leaving out the year of publishing

If it is not possible to include the year of publishing in the list of references, as is often the case with electronic sources, one can leave out the year of publishing both in the in-text references and the list of references.

b) Electronic articles with no permanent link

In some cases, an electronic article does not have a permanent online address or link. With these kinds of sources, the Internet address where the article is available is marked according to the Internet address of the service.

Example:

Parikka, H. 2013. Urheilijan sydän. Teoksessa Lääkärin käsikirja. Available at: http://www.terveysportti.fi . Accessed 4 June 2015.

Gupta, S. 2013. National Health Portal. Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/sauravgupta84/national-health-portal. Accessed 27 September 2015.

c) Electronic publication with no author

Example:

Jymäytetäänkö vanhempia varhaiskasvatuspalveluissa. Available at: https://www.lskl.fi/kannanotot-ja-lausunnot/jymaytetaanko-vanhempia-varhaiskasvatuspalveluissa . Accessed 15 April 2015.