Skip to Main Content

Centria Guide for Thesis and Academic Writing 2022


After the actual text, the student compiles the list of references, which is titled REFERENCES in capital letters. All sources mentioned in the thesis are included in the list of references. No sub-headings are used in the list and the sources are listed in alphabetical order according to the writer’s last name. The reader must be able to find the source in the list of references according to the very information given in the in-text reference. Thus, the in-text reference must be written in exactly the same way as the first information listed in the references. The list of references contains accurate information on the sources used and only the sources that have been used and referred to in the text can be included.

The list of references provides the bibliographical data necessary for locating the publication.

This information includes, for example:

                             the author’s last name, the initial letter of the author’s first name
                             the year of publication
                             the title of the publication (in italics)
                             the edition used, when there are several editions available
                             the place of publication and the name of the publisher.

                             For example:

                             Torkki, J. 2006. PuhevaltaKuinka kuulijat vakuutetaan. Helsinki: Kustannusosakeyhtiö Otava.
                             Yule, G. 1996. The study of language. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


When using electronic sources, one must particularly pay attention to the reliability of the source, the permanence of the source, the availability of the document and the copyright issues. The electronic sources are marked in the list of references following the same practice as the published sources. However, if there is no page numbering or publisher information available, then these are not included. If the author is known, the last name of the author and the year of publication are written first, both in the in-text reference and in the list of references. If a document where the author is not known is used as a source, the in-text reference includes either a) the publishing/ responsible organization or b) the title of the web page (see chapter 6 References). The list of refrences and the in-text references must always correspond using the same information. More advice and examples on using electronic sources can also be found on the pages of the Harvard Referencing Guide.

The list of references should also include the following information:
                         - Available at: (the exact Internet address where the source is available)
                         - Accessed (the date when the document has been accessed and it has been referred to, write out the month, no brackets)

For example:
Krigsman, M. 2009. Social CRM. Shifting power and rapid burn. Available at: Accessed 12 October 2014.

Sieppinen, A. 2011. Resurssit osana asiakkaan arvonluontia palveluliiketoiminnassa. Pankkien lainapalvelut kuluttajille. Maisterin tutkinnon tutkielma. Helsinki: Aalto-yliopisto. Available at: Accessed 18 March 2015.

Eteisvärinä. Käypä hoito -suositus. Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Kardiologisen Seuran asettama työryhmä. Helsinki: Suomalainen Lääkäriseura Duodecim, 2017.  Available at: Accessed 3 March 2018.


The following sub-chapters provide examples of listing different types of sources in the list of references. The references can also be checked in Centria-Finna. The picture below is an example of the way references are shown in Centria-Finna.


An example of a citation in Centria-Finna.


The reader’s impression of the quality of source materials used in the thesis is formed based on the references. A high-quality source material makes a good impression of the author’s expertise.

In-text references and the list of references can also be drawn up using the Mendeley reference management software, which automatically creates correct references when choosing the Harvard citation style. You can find instructions on how to use Mendeley in Mendeley guide.